Transcutaneous Measurement of Essential Vitamins Using Near-Infrared Fluorescent Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors
Naveed Ali Bakh, Xun Gong, Michael A. Lee, Xiaojia Jin, Volodymyr B. Koman, Minkyung Park, Freddy T. Nguyen, Michael S. Strano. Small 2021-06-27
Vitamins such as riboflavin and ascorbic acid are frequently utilized in a range of biomedical applications as drug delivery targets, fluidic tracers, and pharmaceutical excipients. Sensing these biochemicals in the human body has the potential to significantly advance medical research and clinical applications. In this work, a nanosensor platform consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with nanoparticle corona phases engineered to allow for the selective molecular recognition of ascorbic acid and riboflavin, is developed. The study provides a methodological framework for the implementation of colloidal SWCNT nanosensors in an intraperitoneal SKH1-E murine model by addressing complications arising from tissue absorption and scattering, mechanical perturbations, as well as sensor diffusion and interactions with the biological environment. Nanosensors are encapsulated in a polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogel and a diffusion model is utilized to validate analyte transport and sensor responses to local concentrations at the boundary. Results are found to be reproducible and stable after exposure to 10% mouse serum even after three days of in vivo implantation. A geometrical encoding scheme is used to reference sensor pairs, correcting for in vivo optical and mechanical artifacts, resulting in an order of magnitude improvement of p-value from 0.084 to 0.003 during analyte sensing.